Chondrocytes are the resident cells of cartilage. They are responsible for synthesizing a range of collagenous and non-collagenous extracellular matrix macromolecules. These include several peptides, such as collagen type II, aggrecan, link protein, collagen type IX, and collagen type XI. The control of proliferation and differentiation of chondrogenic cells is central to the coordinated development of the vertebrate skeleton. Chondrocytes are capable of producing and responding to a large number of peptide growth factors and cytokines; such as insulin-like growth factor-1 and interleukin-1. Human Chondrocytes are useful in vitro models for studying cartilage regeneration and repair, cytokine and growth factor effects on cartilage, specific gene regulation and pathophysiology of arthritis. They are also useful tools to stablish in vitro disease models for High Throughput and High Content Screening.