Degeneration of the intervertebral disk is a major pathological process related with low back pain. The causes of low back pain include genetics, environmental factors, and psychosocial factors. The anulus fibrosus makes up the peripheral portion of the disk structure, and comprises both fibrocartilage and type I and II collagen. Both, biophysical and mechanical factors in their local environment influence cells of the intervertebral disc. Interleukin 1 beta can induce anulus fibrosus cells to produce factors implicated in local degradative and inflammatory processes. Although mechanical stress is an important modulator of degeneration, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Human annulus fibrosus cells provide an in vitro model for the study of cellular and molecular events involved in disc degeneration, tissue engineering and cell therapy for spinal disc disorders. They are are also useful tools to stablish in vitro disease models for High Throughput and High Content Screening.