Human Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells (HRPTEpiC) play a crucial role in renal function. They reabsorb nearly all of the glucose and amino acids in the glomerular filtrate, while allowing the secretion in the urine of other substances without nutritional value. HRPTEpiC are located near injury sites in a variety of congenital, metabolic, and inflammatory diseases. They can produce inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines; and actively participate in acute inflammatory processes by affecting and directing leukocyte chemotaxis via the production of IL-8. PTEpiC express IL-2R alpha and MHC class II antigens during inflammation, after renal transplantation, or in crescentic glomerulonephritis. HRPTEpiC in culture provide a useful in vitro model for studying the relationship between tubular cells and renal disease. They are also useful tools to stablish in vitro disease models for High Throughput and High Content Screening.