Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is involved in cardiovascular and renal diseases. Gene inactivation of NGAL blunts the pathophysiological consequences of cardiovascular and renal damage. We aimed to design chemical NGAL inhibitors and investigate its effects in experimental models of myocardial infarction (MI) and chronic kidney disease induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (CKD) on respectively 8-12 weeks old C57Bl6/j and FVB/N male mice. Among the 32 NGAL inhibitors tested, GPZ614741 and GPZ058225 fully blocked NGAL-induced inflammatory and profibrotic markers in human cardiac fibroblasts and primary mouse kidney fibroblasts. The administration of GPZ614741 (100 mg/kg/day) for three months, was able to improve cardiac function in MI mice and reduced myocardial fibrosis and inflammation. The administration of GPZ614741 (100 mg/kg/day) for two months resulting to no renal function improvement but prevented the increase in blood pressure, renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and profibrotic marker expression in CKD mice. In conclusion, we have identified new compounds with potent inhibitory activity on NGAL-profibrotic and pro-inflammatory effects. GPZ614741 prevented interstitial fibrosis and dysfunction associated with MI, as well as tubulointerstitial fibrosis in a CKD model. These inhibitors could be used for other diseases that involve NGAL, such as cancer or metabolic diseases, creating new therapeutic options.
Scientific Reports, 2021 Jan 28;11(1)