The ovary coverage comprises a single layer of surface epithelial cells (OSE) where in vivo morphology varies from squamous to cuboidal to low columnar. OSE actively participate in cyclical ovulatory follicular rupture and the subsequent repair. Human Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells express a variety of peptide hormones, sex steroids, growth factors, and also receptors. Many of these biological agents are related with the development of epithelial ovarian carcinomas and sexually transmitted infections. Understanding aberrations in the corresponding cellular pathways is of great clinical importance as they provide useful information regarding several events; such as OSE cell survival, apoptosis, transformation, and function during disease development and potential markers for disease treatment. OSE cultures provide an in vitro model in the pathophysiological studies of ovarian diseases; such as ovarian cancer, cysts or polycystic ovary syndrome.