Renal mesangial cells are perivascular cells present within the central portion of the glomerular tuft between capillary loops. They have a variety of functions including synthesis and assembly of the mesangial matrix, endocytosis and processing of plasma macromolecules. Human Renal Mesangial Cells (HRMC) control of glomerular hemodynamics via mesangial cell contraction or release of vasoactive hormones. HRMC also synthesize, assemble and control turnover of the mesangial matrix. Matrix overproduction of mesangial cells occurs in various glomerular diseases, such as IgA nephropathy, mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis, lupus nephritis, glomerulosclerosis and diabetic nephropathy. Such critical involvements suggest renal mesangial cells are an ideal model for studying mesangial injury and glomerular functions under both; physiological and pathophysiological conditions. They are also useful tools to stablish in vitro disease models for High Throughput and High Content Screening.